In the industry in General and METS in particular, for some time a debate about how demand and environmentally friendly electric propulsion and hybrid court should be an intermediate step towards full electrification. It is obvious that the time to abandon internal combustion engines (ice) fail: making steps towards their gradual replacement, manufacturers are trying to understand how environmentally friendly the result will be, and learn to choose the right materials and technologies for their future products.
Today, scientists offer a variety of options for alternative eco-friendly fuel, but ready-made solutions use industry level does not exist yet. Therefore, the electricity remains the main theme, and its discussion, the organizers first took a separate space called E-Lab.
APEC Jakopin, CEO of JJ Design:
The first shipyard launched hybrid yacht in serial production, was the Mochi Craft (Ferretti Group) in 2006, it submitted 23-foot Mochi Long Range. Ferretti engineers had to overcome several difficulties, but overall the project was a success, and had built five buildings. Then came hybrid catamaran Lagoon 420 (54 buildings), Greenline 33 (550 blocks), and now this list has expanded considerably.
Over the past 12 years, our views and approaches have changed: the industry has come to realize that internal combustion engines will remain on the vessels, which are important for a large reserve. Perhaps they will operate on biofuel and be more environmentally friendly, but without ice they will not do.
Not long ago, hybrids were considered optimal for a “green” future, but in that time technology had advanced so much that the electric boats and cars have become more than acceptable solution, which will remain in the industry. For example, in 2017, 2% of new cars in Europe were all-electric (38% compared to 2016), whereas in China this value was 3.3%, 71% more than in 2016.
Christoph Balin, CEO of Torqeedo:
Until recently, the basic tenets in the promotion of electric propulsion systems have always had electricity with environmental friendliness, and sold products to “green” yachting, assuming that each technology should be more “clean”. However, increasing environmental friendliness as such is not sufficient. If you offer environmentally friendly, but slow, heavy, low-powered ship with a small reserve, no one will buy and you will not succeed. To make yachting more environmentally friendly can only be the case if we are able to offer a more convenient product than the same internal combustion engine that will provide the best user experience, and sustainability will be a nice addition.
In many segments of the electricity is not able at all to offer anything. Take the North American sports fishing boats. Than us to cover their high power podvizhniki if electric alternatives for them is not even on the horizon? Any type of propulsion for pleasure craft is determined by four factors: energy requirements (speed and range), duty cycle (distance, frequency, time and nature of the movement), as well as the frequency and consistency of use. If you know all four variables, we can easily determine in which segment what type of hybrid or electric propulsion optimal.
If the energy demand is small (a small sailboat and the Dinghy), this segment may already be fully electric, and ten years later will be for sure, since the process of abandoning the internal combustion engine here is in full swing.
In the case of ferries plays a big role usage frequency: the speed at which low, but the amount of energy you need solid. The initial cost of such a vessel with electrically higher than DVS, but it is much cheaper to operate, and the payback period is 3-4 years. Because steam has a constant duty cycle, its propulsion system to adjust its characteristics, achieving reliability and trouble-free use.
For sailing yachts are best suited sequential hybrids, as their duty cycle consists of a motion under sail, when you can generate and store energy, as well as numerous attacks on electric. On those rare occasions when on long passages need the motor or the speed of the internal combustion engine is used. For this sailing segment will move in the next 5-10 years.
Parallel hybrids are good for vessels where the operating cycle blend modes with low and high energy consumption (motor yachts). The energy density of modern batteries is growing (1 battery of up to 40 kW/h) and a 10-metre Greenline Neo (weight approx 6 tons) with two Torqeedo podvesnoe 60 kW develops up to 18 knots and glissirovat at that speed for about an hour.
Finally, for the future of yachting is strongly influenced by the new laws. If they require you to make any area available only for electric ships, all of the following factors is not important. We strive to increase the penetration of electric propulsion systems in yachting is not in order for people to be able to save on fuel for dirty engines with low efficiency. In 2015, after signing the Paris agreements of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) commissioned a study, which came out recently. It says that to prevent the catastrophe of global warming should be no more than 1.5 °C from pre-industrial values (1880), and we have only 12 years to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 45%. If this does not happen, will begin the development of a much more dangerous “dvuhkrugovogo” scenario.
The global scientific community agree the the effects of global warming, and the question is, will humanity to prevent it. Answer: of course not. And we know it. It seems that the ruling circles need to see the disastrous consequences, to begin to adopt a more radical laws, so there’s quite a period of inactivity, then the increased pressure on the government and the end — reaction to what is happening.
We are now at 1 °C above pre-industrial values, and each subsequent tenth of a degree will cause more serious disasters, including fires, floods, tornado, drought and gaps in the food chains. As a result, will increase the intensity of diseases. You can say goodbye to coral reefs on the planet. Yes, if the temperature rises by 2 °C, on the Ground that they do not remain…
In the yacht industry also have a responsibility: we must strive for a neutral effect on the climate means movement, and it is important to focus on those segments in which electricity can become a reliable working solution now. We have no excuses not to do it, and it’s time to stop thinking in terms of fuel economy.
Ken Wittamer, managing Director of Triskel Marine:
Laws on the environment, is the stick that forces farmers to flee to other countries, where the requirements below. The laws should encourage business to carry out research, not just to fulfill the requirements, therefore, much more positive examples when this or that industry introduces its own internal rules, enabling participants to invest in innovation. The European Union is most properly approached this question when you set goals for 10, 20 and 30 years, outlined the areas of research and began to sponsor them. 10 years ago we started to develop our technology, which became the winner of the DAME Design Award, funded by the European Union, and this was the result of strategic decisions taken earlier.
Today hardly anyone can answer the question of what comes after lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries on the market and still no offers. Research funding lead-acid batteries have long slowed down in favor of lithium-ion, though both have similar potential.
With all the advantages of Li-Ion batteries there are issues with their stability and processing: it is unclear what to do at the end of their life cycle, whereas lead-acid batteries are fully recyclable. Very promising development of flow batteries, if someone will ever take them. In the end, it all boils down to the fact that people are willing to pay: today, the market is able and willing to pay for lithium batteries, because they are widely advertised.
Mattys van dyke, Professor at the Technical University of Delft, founder Reframing Studio:
How to prevent turning today’s dreams into tomorrow’s disaster? Often we begin to innovate with the best intentions, and after 5-10 years find out that has got absolutely not what I wanted. How to create innovation for the future? Someone will say that this is impossible, because we cannot predict the future, but maybe it isn’t?
The first impediment on the way to this is the belief that technology will provide the answer to all questions. Mankind has learned to create incredible things, but how they are significant to people?
The second problem stems from the fact that lay in the basis of innovation ideas often involve simplified understanding of society. The third difficulty arises during the discussion of such ideas when we think that we have to find a compromise and stop thinking about whether it is significant for users. In the case of yachts it is especially important: after starting to build a boat that will go on the water in a few years, we must be sure that it will be appropriate in the future.
In General the value of everything we do, only opens in the future, and in the case of innovation, we first need to distance themselves from the present. Attracting designers to develop, you should be very careful: their “antennae” they have a deep understanding of what is happening with society at the moment, and it hurts. So you need to “cut” their “antenna” and to act differently, knowing well what you want to achieve for users.
Conditions determine behavior, therefore, when considering a yacht, you first need to understand how people will behave, owning the property and then determine the type of vessel. In other words, we need to predict future conditions and user behavior, and if we can do this, you will be able to create and innovation.
In this respect, Elon Musk with his escapism does not strike me as the Savior of the world: he is very old-fashioned. Much more interesting Douglas Tompkins, founder of North Face, which, unlike bill gates, invested in the restoration of nature since the launch of the company, and not just when rich.
The future is expressed in the behavior of people, and creating a script, you need to put next not alternative worlds, but alternative (though realistic) behaviors. Designers and designers have the opportunity to change the world by guiding it in the direction intended due to the formation of future behavior of people by using designed for this future products.
Winners of the DAME DESIGN Award the 2018
Marine electronics and software Spinlock (Sail-Sense)
Interior equipment and materials Vimar (Electronic Switch 8 in 7 out 3M)
Equipment and materials for marine and shipyards Award was not awarded
Deck equipment, sails and rigging Harken (CLR Mooring Winch)
Clothing and accessories Rooster (Exofleece)
Equipment to ensure the safety of Shakespeare Marine (GALAXY-INFL8)
Motors, drives, mechanical and electrical assemblies Triskel Marine (Integrel) — absolute winner
Ivo Veldhuis, technical Director, Mayfair Marine:
The energy density of hydrogen is higher than fossil fuels, so the designers more options for its use. Studies of this energy source have been going on for a long time, but now we are seeing a new wave of enthusiasm, since the fuel producers and the government plan to provide the shipping sector with hydrogen. Another reason for optimism is the creation of free from emission areas, however, hydrogen is also not so simple. Today it is produced from natural gas by steam reforming and by-product of passing of chemical reactions is carbon dioxide which is emitted directly into the atmosphere. It’s not perfect, because hydrogen fuel does not work 100% pure. Fuel cells are easy massturbate, and if you start to combine them with hybrid and electric technologies from other industries, then there is freedom in the design. For example, it is possible to place cells in different parts of the superstructure of a cruise ship and independently supply energy to different parts of it, which will lead to substantial savings on cables and ensure a high degree of redundancy. But it is necessary initially to design the ship for a hydrogen fuel rather than trying to add it to existing projects.
Chad Frishman, strategic Manager at Project Drawdown:
Climate change is not a problem, but the response of the planet to the problem, which shows us what is happening. The problem is the excessive emission of greenhouse gases leading to global warming, and the task of humanity is to reach the point in time when the atmosphere will get less and less greenhouse gases than removed from it.
We described and measured by at least 80 decisions to reach this turning point, each of which is feasible, scalable and economically viable. In all cases they relate to the replacement of fossil fuels to clean, renewable energy sources, lower consumption through improving technology and behavior change, as well as with the transfer of carbon from the atmosphere into the soil and plant biomass.
We used to believe that to stop global warming you need to go to alternative energy sources, but there’s only five of 20 major decisions, and 12 are related to land, means of production and turnover of food, and the greatest harm is used in refrigerators and air conditioners fluorocarbons.
To prevent global warming we must fight on all fronts at the same time 80, and, according to our estimates, it will cost about $ 29 trillion that should be spent in the next 30 years (almost a trillion a year). That is a lot, but do not forget that the world GDP is $ 80 trillion. Moreover, the economic benefits of implementing these decisions will be about $ 74 trillion, that is more than two times higher than the costs.
Herve Gastinel, CEO Beneteau Group:
We have developed a method of analysis of the environmental impact of our products from the moment of its creation to destruction and continue to increase in the production of yachts share materials, which can then be reused. I believe that all of Europe will move in this direction, and we need quickly to adapt to this, taking the initiative.
Udo Clinic, Secretary General of ICOMIA:
Trade Association ICOMIA, with its 37 members is the worldwide super yacht industry and helps to solve common problems, including the collection of statistical information and interaction with governments on environmental issues. In General industry, according to our estimates, is in good condition: the U.S. market remains the leader and shows significant growth, whereas the European is almost recovered due to low interest rates on loans and lower unemployment.
The biggest potential problem now is to trade wars and hostile trade policy of individual countries. This confrontation has hit the market, violating established trading patterns. Statistics are not yet available, but the cost of production of pleasure boats has increased, and inflation raised the General goods, which negatively affects purchasing power.
Yachting today is changing rapidly, and attracted to him people, and if the industry does not adapt in time to these changes, we will have great difficulty.
Types of hybrid energy ostanovochnyy Gibraltara the configuration where the electric motor only spins the drive, receiving power from the battery or generator on the basis of the internal combustion engine. Serial hybrids are most useful when driving with frequent stops when the computer decides to go on electric before switching to a mode where the internal combustion engine more efficient. In serial hybrids are typically used in small motors and a more powerful battery than a parallel.PARALLEL HYBRID this case, the internal combustion engine and electric motor together produce energy for the drives. It uses a smaller battery, and at low energy demand of the internal combustion engine works as a generator for charging. Because the motor is directly connected with the drive, there is no need to translate the mechanical energy into electricity and back, which increases the efficiency of parallel hybrids at a constant movement at high speed.Series-PARALLEL Hybridrocket the benefits of both schemes and allows the engine more often to work optimally. At low speeds involved sequential mode (electric only), and on the high connects the engine and energy losses are minimized. This is a more expensive system compared to the parallel hybrid, as it requires a capacious battery, generator and additional processing power that kompensiruet increased fuel economy.