Do not go out to sea, not knowing what to do in an emergency
What to do in a situation of “man overboard”? How to manage a boat in a storm? Experts of the authoritative magazine Sailing provide answers to the major questions, not understanding in which in the sea is better not to go.
How it works inflatable life jacket
Most offshore racers prefer to use inflatable life vests. They work a little differently than traditional, with foam inside.
The vest inflates when the spring in the filling system pierces the carbon dioxide cylinder. This is from dissolving the capsules in water, and the pressure on her. In particular, the system Spinlock Hammar won’t work until submerged at least four inches (10 cm), as may be the case when the vest come rain or splashing water. And, most likely, it will delay, if afloat holds you clothes. Ideally, the sensors inflate the vest are only activated when the water goes straight to the cap, but in the last VOR they periodically worked by accident.
Most of the vests for offshore racing can be translated into manual mode. For this you need to Unscrew the bulb with the automation that there is only a check. Vest available in manual mode, and should be marked accordingly, and will react to it only when you are effort pulled the pin.
Make sure that the vest looks good, it depends including from. When you purchase select the appropriate size (most are universal), and wearing it, make sure to adjust the straps. Chest strap must be fitted tightly and do not restrict movement. Be sure to read the instruction or watch the video on how to wear a vest. To utgivelse it will be every time different depending on what is underneath the clothes (it’s also worth to pay attention at purchase).
Most inflatable vests comes with an additional means for your safety the a — line inguinal straps Dodger to protect against spray, lights, whistles, contortae. It is important to learn how to properly place the kit on the vest. No matter what color the vest outside, its a balloon should be bright safety colours with reflective tape on top.
After you have adjusted all the straps and inspected the kit, will be examined, as the vest is inflated, because it is its main function. First find where is the check: if the system itself doesn’t work, you will have to activate it manually. Note the tube swap on the cylinder: it is needed to swap the cylinder if the CO2 cartridge inflated it fully, or to inflate yourself in the event of failure of the cartridge. Also through this handset can be slightly lower pressure if the balloon is too tight on the neck and makes breathing more difficult (which is rare).
The vest must be maintained in working condition to dry after each use, pre-clearing with a damp cloth from the salt and dirt. It requires regular annual inspection and cylinder carbon dioxide and the hammer, which breaks out, replaced if the vest is used. How to do this, each manufacturer provides instructions and/or videos.
If you decide to replace an unusable system inflation of the vest (a new set will cost about $50) to first still use it. So you kill two birds with one stone and get some practice in, in case of an emergency, and replace the cartridge turn into an exciting adventure.
How to use flare
The most important thing in the use of the flare is to choose the right time when it should ignite. If you want to increase the chances of being spotted, wait for a passing ship or flying aircraft.
It is recommended to launch two missiles at a time. The first will attract attention and the second will indicate where you are. Signal rocket with parachute, burning for 20-30 seconds, so one will be enough to get you noticed and identified your location.
When you manage to attract the attention of potential rescuers, keep feeding them the signals in all possible ways. Use lights, mirrors, swing clothes. Orion recommends that you keep on Board a sufficient number of signal lights, to be able to provide 12 minutes of continuous burning. Using flares, you will help rescuers to take a course to your Board.
Some tips to increase the efficiency of the use of flares:
- If possible, move close to the boat — its much easier to find than a man in the life raft or just a vest.
- Read the instructions on how to use the signal lights before you need them. Otherwise you risk to lose time and miss a opportunity to signal at the right time.
- Remember that all rescue operations are conducted on a “grid”. This means that the plane will fly over the same point several times. If you missed the opportunity to signal the first time, be patient and wait until the plane will fly again, instead of zooming after him.
- And remember: flares not much happens, so always take them longer than planned.
How to sarifice grotto
To refit grotto beforehand. This is logical: when the wind increases, the boat goes under the roll, and the whistle in my ears from the wind such that you cannot hear the other crew members that it is not easy task.
Start with easing the backstay and boom topenant, then give the main halyard and slowly minite grotto is slightly lower than the level of the reef that you want to take. Then attach to a new level galbavy angle, regardless of how tuned your boat, and tamp FAL front foot to the desired effort. When the front sail is full, tie the back corner and tamp so that both the angle of the sails were in their places, and the bottom part.
Roll the rest of the sails that you sharefile, and tie through the grommets. Cabin liposom in the boom usually pack the lower part of the sails differently. Sometimes along the boom stretched elastic bands that hold the mainsail to avoid flying (Lazy Jack).
How to rescue a person overboard
Below is an excerpt from the leadership of the salvation of man behind the American yachting Association.
- The first who noticed that the man overboard should shout “Man overboard!” and follow its position in the water.
- You need to throw into the water a special module, if there is one on Board or something floating. This will not only help a person to stay afloat, but also outline the place where he fell overboard.
- If on Board there is someone else, he must press the button “man overboard” on the GPS and alert the next yacht on the radio.
After all of the above is done, the helmsman must decide how to deploy the boat, not forgetting about the weather conditions and the capabilities of the crew. Maneuver need to build to be as close to the fallen. You also need to understand that the yacht is better to stop on the windward side: in the case of a small mistake you will be carried away by the wind in the right direction. This can be done in several ways:
- Eight. Will uvulitis in galfvind and go from the fallen man about three lengths of your body. Do the tacking and full course, go back (so you cross the same course), and then, leaving about one body length to the man, make another turn and come to him in a sharp galfvind.
- Galfvind and full backstay. If at the moment when a crew member overboard, you went on the wind or in full backstay, this tutorial is for you. Walk a few lengths of the body in the backstay, and then operate until the sails will not savalot. Do the tacking. After turning take the course at a point near the fallen.
- Quick stop. This maneuver involves stopping the yacht as close to overboard. If you are the cool wind and heard a cry of “Man overboard!”, you need to immediately allow the nose to the wind, not petrasova staysail, and the boat immediately stopped. Then estrovite staysail and uvulitis, turn and return to the right place. At the approach stand in galfvind.
- Back under the motor. Alternatively, it is possible to start the engine and go back for the fallen. But before you start, make sure the ends are not thrown overboard, that they are not wrapped around the screw, and the approach turn the engine in neutral gear. Come just as if I was only sailing in the galfvind. Stop the boat a little in advance, and then slowly turn the gear to get closer.
Keep the drop to throw the end fallen overboard, when he will be in the area of the throw, as well as a ladder, trapeze and pulley system, so you don’t have to manually pull it on Board. You may have to use a boat or the seat, bassinet.
As with any rescue procedure, the main thing here is practice. A few practice approaches to the jacket, grancem or float will give your crew a good skills, and when you really need it, everyone will know what to do.
If you’ve gone overboard
If you do go overboard, there are some important points that you need to do as soon as possible so that the chances of finding your top. First assess the situation: if you fall, you were bound long safety rope, determine if someone from the crew on Board quickly, in just a few seconds to get you. Otherwise, you can tighten under the water, and then have to cut the strop.
If you are not tied to the boat, make sure your vest is inflated or pull the pin. Additional equipment will pull to the bottom, and if you did not vest or did not provide sufficient buoyancy, try to remove your shoes, if it is not too difficult. If you wear a personal sensor-locator, turn it on as soon as possible. Before use, make sure it is in working condition.
In the case when the Board fell a few people, do everything you can to find each other. So you will become a more visible point for the rescuers and it would only take one rescue operation. Interlock hands, it will also add buoyancy. So did the members of the crew of the yacht Rambler 100 when overboard due to the loss of the keel during a race the Rolex Fastnet Race.
When the first moments after the fall has passed and you feel relatively safe in the current conditions, the next step is to attract attention. Use a flashlight, a flare, a whistle, just wave your hands. If there is a fire, use it when you are sure that someone is looking in your direction.
If you see that in the near future to get help, try to save power and to stay afloat face up.
Many factors affect the success of the rescue operation — your technical readiness for an emergency situation, your experience… but there is something that you cannot buy and what you can’t learn — ability to keep cool.
Most importantly, says mark Wheeler (Mark Wheeler) that fell overboard in a squall while racing Chicago Yacht Club Race to Mackinac — 2017. He participated in the race on the yacht Farr 400 Meridian X, the wind was about 19 knots and reach 50 knots in the gusts, when Wheeler fell between the rails in the midst of work. The boat was two miles away when they could sminute Spinnaker and turn back. This situation occurred impenetrable night, Wheeler was in the water more than 30 minutes and whistled to help the crew on Board in the search.
“I whistled as loudly as possible,” says Wheeler.
Of course, the whistle on the vest helped Wheeler, but more importantly, he remained calm and was focused, haven’t found it yet.
How to cope with storm conditions
Whatever your plans, the weather makes its own adjustments, and easy Passat, is giving way to a flurry. And, if you are unable to leave or to stay, you will have to deal with it. You need to lie to one of three tactics: the sails when the boat slowly goes forward or falls by the wind, or without them.
Just heave to the sails is more suitable for a yacht with a long keel and heavy yachts. For this you need to fill the jib from the windward side and firmly fix the rudder in such a position that the boat is not twisted and it did not go forward. It will be a small roll and the ship will be slowly demolished by the wind. Ideally, it will stand at 45° to the wind, it needs to find the correct position of the mainsail and rudder. Not necessary to wait for strong winds, you can try to drift in normal conditions.
To heave the sails so that the yacht went on ahead a little, meaning virtually sarifice grotto and to go the course of about 45°-60° to the wind. Such tactics are suitable for most types of yachts. Its advantage is that you have control of the direction of the yacht and you slowly, but still moving forward, and this is important when the Bank you have is from the wind. This method will also appeal to those who are interested to be involved in the process and not just wait for better weather. To successfully heave to, saritha grotto stronger and armed with a little storm staysail or trisel. But this drift is not for wimps, the yacht and her crew will beat the waves. The fortress of the body — the only limitation to such tactics, it is better suited to strong offshore yachts.
And the last thing you want to do is to heave to without sails. So do only in the most severe conditions. You lower all the sails, leave the mast and the shrouds, down to the cabin… All that will happen next, may not be very pleasant. But standing broadside to the waves in the open sea, you risk to turn over. So all that remains is to go under the mast.
More about the intricacies of sailing a yacht in stormy conditions you can learn by watching the video:
Article printed on may 1, 2018 in the magazine Sailing Magazine.